Mobile Enterprise Transition and Management (Advanced & Emerging Communications Technologies)
Oceus Networks provides cutting-edge 2G, 3G and 4G LTE broadband mobile technologies to government and commercial industries worldwide. We provide technology solutions that are current during program execution, rather than contract award. In contrast, custom built alternatives, and their long procurement cycles, often result in outdated technology at the time of deployment. Our approach ensures the on-time and on-budget delivery of advanced, scalable technologies and innovative solutions that address both current and future customer communications needs.
Oceus Networks is the exclusive provider of Ericsson communications technologies for certain segments of the U. Mobile assets that are not properly integrated can compromise accurate situational awareness. As a result, integration of sensor and other mission critical information is even more critical in a mobile environment. Oceus Networks integrates this critical data, including security of the entire transaction, from the satellite or radio to the end device.
Through integration of leading first responder technology, we provide connectivity between LTE and Land Mobile Radio devices. For the warfighter, our mobility solutions have achieved NSA authority to operate up to the Secret level. Mobile environment operation is relatively new for most users.
Solutions need to be rapidly designed and architected with migration from current operations in mind, since pre-existing solutions without proper design and architecture considerations are often not effective. Deployment of mobile capability is a complex and evolving process. As a result, Oceus provides skilled engineers to ensure your operators understand how to leverage this new mobile capability.
In addition, we are staffed with a 24X7X customer support desk to field calls for problems that may occur during operations. Our engineers also support first responder exercises to help our customers develop new techniques to leverage their new mobility capability. The demand for protection of data communications continues to grow and the requirements for securing that data are ever-changing. Federal agencies and public safety organizations alike face heightened secure communications requirements for mobile operations. Oceus Networks understands the importance of solutions that not only share and access this sensitive data while on the move, but provides highly secure methods to meet these requirements.
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PathErr messages are sent upstream to the sender that created the error, and they do not change path state in nodes through which they pass. As for ResvErr messages, there are many ways for a syntactically valid reservation request to fail at a node along the path. Nodes may also preempt an established reservation. Because the failed request may be a combination of a number of requests, a ResvErr message must be sent to all of the appropriate receivers.
In addition, merging heterogeneous requests creates a potential problem called the killer reservation problem , in which a request could deny service to another.
The problem is simple when a reservation R1 is already in place. If another receiver makes a larger reservation R2, the result of merging R1 and R2 may be rejected by admission control in an upstream node. The service to R1 will not be denied, however, because when admission control fails for a reservation request existing reservations are left in place. To enable this, a ResvErr message establishes an additional state, called blockade state, in each node through which it passes.
Blockade state in a node modifies the merging procedure to omit the offending FlowSpec from the merge, allowing a smaller request to be established. A reservation request that fails admission control creates blockade state but is left in place in nodes downstream of the failure point. A PathTear message travels towards all receivers downstream from its point of initiation and deletes path state, as well as all dependent reservation state.
A ResvTear message travels towards all senders upstream from its point of initiation and deletes reservation state. It is possible to tear down any subset of the established state; for path state, the granularity for teardown is a single sender, while for reservation state the granularity is an individual FilterSpec. Teardown requests can be initiated by end systems or by routers as a result of state timeout or service preemption.
The state deletion is immediately propagated to the next node only if there will be a net change after merging same as with the reservation state. Hence, a ResvTear message will prune the reservation state back as far as possible. In general, this information is derived from the reservation state block for the same outgoing interface. The traffic control state block defines a single reservation for the triple: session, outgoing interface, and FilterSpec list.
Depending upon the reservation style in use, this information may be per session and sender template pair, or per session and previous hop pair. RSVP acquires routing entries by sending route queries to the routing protocol. Hence, RSVP simulates its own multicast forwarding so it can specify a single interface to send a multicast packet without any loop back. RSVP may ask routing to notify it when a particular route changes.
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Route change notification enables RSVP to quickly adapt its reservations to changes in the route between a source and destination. For multicast destinations, a route change consists of any local change in the multicast tree for a source-group pair including prunes and grafts , as well as routing changes due to failed or recovered links.
If routing cannot support route change notification, RSVP must poll routing for route entries in order to adapt to route changes. A RESV message forwarded to a previous hop carries a FlowSpec that is the largest of the FlowSpecs requested by the next hops to which the data flow will be sent.
FlowSpecs are generally multidimensional vectors, and each of their TSpec and RSpec components may itself be multidimensional. It may not be possible to strictly order two FlowSpecs. For example, if one request specifies a lower bandwidth than the other, but the other specifies a looser delay bound, neither is larger than the other. This is the least upper bound LUB of the flows.
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The remaining interfaces are briefly described below. It should also inform the application of the receipt of all types of RSVP messages. This interface enables establishing a reservation, modifying a reservation, deleting a FlowSpec, deleting or adding a FilterSpec, updating the AdSpec, and preempting a reservation. This interface supports route querying, route change notification, and interface list discovery. RSVP must be able to use the promiscuous receive mode for RSVP messages, force a packet to be sent to a specific interface, specify the source address and time-to-live in PATH messages, and send messages with the router alert option.
Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, which is called the management information base MIB. Each object type is named by an administratively assigned name, called the object identifier. Two methods for IP security were defined. The first method introduces an authentication header AH in IP packets after the IP header, but before the information being authenticated.
The authentication header can provide authentication, integrity, and possibly non-repudiation, depending on the cryptographic algorithm employed. ESP can provide confidentiality and integrity, and possibly authentication to IP packets. RSVP as specified in Braden et al. This is because RSVP relies on transport protocol port numbers e. For flows without such port numbers, such as IPSEC packet flows where such information is encrypted, flow definition is solely dependent on the IP address and protocol. The session object will also require the addition of a virtual destination port to be able to demultiplex sessions beyond the IP destination address.
One limitation of this method, however, is that when the wildcard filter is used, all flows to the same IP destination address and with the same IP protocol identifier will share the same reservation. Hop-by-hop integrity and authentication of RSVP messages and sessions can be provided through an integrity object. This is especially important in order to protect the integrity of the admission control mechanism against corruption and spoofing. A scheme is proposed in Baker1 to transmit the result of applying a cryptographic algorithm to a one-way function or digest of the message together with a secret authentication key.
Real-time applications can be further subdivided into those that are intolerant to delay and those that are more tolerant, called delay adaptive. In this section, we will provide a brief overview of these two services. Each service is specified by a TSpec and an RSpec, as previously discussed. If the traffic of the flow obeys the TSpec, the packets are guaranteed to be delivered within the requested delay bound. The service does not give any guarantees on the delay variation jitter.
The TSpec of the flow is given in the form of a token bucket bucket rate and bucket depth , a peak rate, a minimum policed unit, and a maximum packet size. The RSpec is described using a rate and a slack term. Given the token bucket parameters and the data rate given to the flow, it is possible to compute a bound on the maximum queuing delay thus the maximum delay experienced by packets. This is because the network elements are required to approximate the fluid model of service.
The network element must also export two error-characterization terms which represent how the network element implementation deviates from the fluid model. At the edge of the network, arriving traffic is compared against the TSpec and policed. In addition, traffic is reshaped at heterogeneous branch points when TSpec for all branches in a multicast tree is not the same and at merge points.
Reshaping means that the traffic is reconstructed to conform to the TSpec. Reshaping needs to be done only if the TSpec on the outgoing link is less than the TSpec reserved on the immediate upstream link. It uses admission control to ensure that adequate resources are available to provide the requested level of quality with overload conditions.
Applications can assume that 1 a high percentage of the transmitted packets are successfully delivered to the destinations, and 2 the transit delay experienced by a high percentage of the delivered packets will not highly exceed the minimum transit delay. The controlled load service does not give specific delay or loss guarantees thus there is no RSpec. Over all timescales significantly larger than the burst time, a controlled load service flow should experience little or no average packet queuing delay and little or no congestion loss.
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Information from measurement of the aggregate traffic flow or specific knowledge of traffic statistics can be used by the admission control algorithm for a multiplexing gain. Nonconformant controlled load traffic is forwarded on a best-effort basis only under overload conditions.
Interfaces to the QoS control services are also defined in a general format. In addition, receivers are allowed to dynamically change their QoS requirements throughout the connection lifetime since reservations are periodically refreshed. Group membership also changes throughout connection lifetime. It must also support both UNI 3.
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The control messages can be carried on the data VCs or on separate VCs. The best scheme for VC management should use a minimal number of VCs, waste minimal bandwidth due to duplicate packets, and handle heterogeneity and renegotiation in a flexible manner. Proposals that significantly alter RSVP should be avoided. Furthermore, using special servers might introduce additional delays, so cutthrough forwarding approaches are preferred.